WAEC

WAEC Government Answers 2022- 22nd June 2022 [Theory & Objectives]

WAEC Further Mathematics Aanswers 2022 -23rd June 2022
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The WAEC Government Answers 2022: have been outlined here. The West African Examination Council (WAEC) WAEC Government Answers 2022- 22nd June 2022 Examination  will hold on Wednesday 22 June 2022

The WAEC Government Examination 2022 will commence from 13:00 hrs.-15:10 hrs.15:10 hrs.-16:00 hrs. Below, we will be WAEC Government Answers 2022- 22nd June 2022 for candidates that will participate in the examination.

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NO 1)
1. Bribery and corruption: some civil servants divert public fund to their personal pockets. Property meant for the public service are turned to theirs. In fact some will not perform their routine duties effectively until they are sufficiently bribe. This may lack citizens confidence from the government.
2. Poor condition of service: That is, salaries of the civil servants are not attractive. Promotion are also slow. Citizens will absolutely lost trust in the government.
3. Another reason that will make citizens to lust trust in any government if the political power that is in government failed to fulfilling their manifesto.
4. Tribalism, favouritism and nepotism: Some key appointments into top position and promotion in any government department are not base on merits but nepotism and tribalism preferential treatment to friends, relatives ect.
5. Finally, incompetent of the presidential candidate and his executives. That is, if the three arm's of government are not perverting justice according to the constitution. Citizens will lose confidence in the government.
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(NO 2) (CHOOSE ANY 5)
1. Every adult citizen has the right to vote in elections, on a non-discriminatory basis.

(2) Every adult citizen has the right to access to an effective, impartial and non-discriminatory procedure for the registration of voters.

(3) No eligible citizen shall be denied the right to vote or disqualified from registration as a voter, otherwise than in accordance with objectively verifiable criteria prescribed by law, and provided that such measures are consistent with the State's obligations under international law.

(4) Every individual who is denied the right to vote or to be registered as a voter shall be entitled to appeal to a jurisdiction competent to review such decisions and to correct errors promptly and effectively.

(5) Every voter has the right to equal and effective access to a polling station in order to exercise his or her right to vote.

(6) Every voter is entitled to exercise his or her right equally with others and to have his or her vote accorded equivalent weight to that of others.

(7) The right to vote in secret is absolute and shall not be restricted in any manner whatsoever.

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ANOTHER NUMBER TWO
1.) Citizens are able to register to vote
Governments can place some restrictions on who can register to vote based on age, residency, or citizenship status. However, for an election to be free and fair, governments cannot prevent eligible voters from registering or make it more difficult for some groups of people to register than others. For example, until the Voting Rights Act was passed in the United States in 1965, many Southern states required Black voters to take literacy tests in order to register to vote. These tests were designed to be impossible to pass and to prevent Black people from voting, which means that the elections held in these states during this time period were not free and fair.

2.) Citizens are able to register to vote
Governments can place some restrictions on who can register to vote based on age, residency, or citizenship status. However, for an election to be free and fair, governments cannot prevent eligible voters from registering or make it more difficult for some groups of people to register than others. For example, until the Voting Rights Act was passed in the United States in 1965, many Southern states required Black voters to take literacy tests in order to register to vote. These tests were designed to be impossible to pass and to prevent Black people from voting, which means that the elections held in these states during this time period were not free and fair.

3.) Citizens can run for office
Governments cannot attack or intimidate people who decide to run for office or create discriminatory rules about who is allowed to run.

4.) All voters have access to a polling place or another method of voting
People need to be able to freely cast their ballots. Voters should be able to reach polling stations, enter them, and cast their votes regardless of who they are or where they live. If voters are unable to vote in person:
—for example because of a disability, health condition, or a lack of transportation
—they should have access to an alternative method of voting, such as voting by mail.

5.) Voting is free from fraud
Every eligible voter should be able to vote only one time, and ineligible voters should be prevented from voting. For example, opposition leaders in Cameroon accused the ruling party of filling out hundreds of ballots in their favor to stuff into ballot boxes during local and parliamentary elections held in 2020.

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(NO 3)
- Compromises the Rule of Law:
With the interfered independence of the judiciary also comes the compromise of the rule of law. Many people who would otherwise not have their way within the normal channels will always be too quick to rush to the judiciary to beat the odds. If left unchecked, this might compromise the rule of law permanently.

- Opens the Floodgates for Mob Justice:
This is simply a situation whereby the public law and order is not maintained as per the laid rules and regulations but on what the public wishes for at any given time. This is a bad precedent that should never be set, let alone followed.

- Likely to create confusion:
If the mandates issued out by the judiciary contradict or are in variance with the ones passed by the legislature, the result might be heavy confusion.

- Highly prone to biases:
When all is said and done under this circumstance, the ruling issued out by the judiciary is often largely determined by the strength of the lobbyists, not what is truly good for the public. Thus, it is highly likely to be prone to biases and especially in favor of those with the necessary clout. This is also not to mention the possibilities of corruption and bribery taking root.

- Interferes with the Independence of the Legislature:
Judiciaries ought to be completely independent and uncompromised. That is why, for a large part, they have to base their rulings and convictions purely based on the evidence tabled before them and the laws passed.
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(NO 4)
(i) A state is a territorial association of people with defined boundaries, while Government is an administrative institution within a state.

(ii) A state is more inclusive and therefore greater than government i.e. it embraces all the people and associations within a given area while Government is not as inclusive as the state.

(iii) A state is a continuing entity. It is therefore permanent. It can hardly be overthrown or changed. while Government is a temporary institution. It only lasts over a period of time. It can be overthrown

(iv) A state depends on government in carrying out its activities. while Government is the machinery by which the functions of a state are performed.

(v) A state has its elements, as population, territory, government and sovereignty. Government has its main organs as the legislature, executive and judiciary.

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(NO 6)
(i) Settlement of disputes: The traditional rulers performed some judicial functions by settling dispute among the people in their community

(ii) Creation of law enforcement: They also created law enforcement institutions like e.g age grades and masquerade to enable them maintain law and order in the community.

(iii) The use of ancestral spirits: The ancestral spirits were used by the traditional rulers to control their subjects which they believ guides their footseps.

(iv) The use of sanction and punishments: These measures were applied against law breakers in the community, e.g banishment.

(v) The introduction of rewards: people who had contributed to the development of their areas were rewarded with titles or distribution of land and war booty.

(vi) Appointment of Chiefs: Chiefs were appointed by traditional rulers in order to use them to control their subjects

(vii) Conscription of youths: The traditional rulers conscripted youths to perform forced labour and serve in the British army during the world wars.
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(NO 8)

1.) Historical experience
The major reason for the adoption of federal system of government in Nigeria is borne out of the historical experience that brought all the ethical groups together under one Nigeria. It has severally been emphasized by both the Northern and Western politicians that God did not create Nigeria but the British.
The British in their quest for economic wealth and geo-political edges over other Europeans in Africa made Nigeria the largest British colony in Africa. The Emergence of Nigeria as a political entity under colonial rule was not an easy affair. It came about following the necessity for administrative convenience and managerial expenses.
Moreover, it is important to note that most of the ethnic groups in Nigeria had strong political inter-group relationship before colonial rule. The history of Ijaw, Edo, Igala, Yoruba, Igbo, Nupe and Hausa Kingdoms are enriched with social-political relationships that existed before the emergence of the white man. Political institutions, Kinship ties, Origin of towns and their cultural antecedents are enriched with similar history. All these strengthen political bonds and gave Rice to unity in diversity.

2.) Unity of the country
This is also one of the reasons for federal system of government in Nigeria. Federalism was basically introduced to bring about peace and unity in the different regions of the country. In many countries of the world, federalism has emerged as a means of accommodating the growing desire of people to preserve or revive the intimacy of small societies and the growing necessity for larger combinations to mobilize the utilization of common resources.
The unity here is brought about by the desire of the component units of the federation to form union in respect of some matters. Mere desire to unite is not enough but there must be the desire to remain separate in respect to other matters. If the desire to remain separate does not exist, the the association will not be federal but unitary with some delegation of powers to local government.

3.) Political culture of Nigeria:
Another important factor that necessitated federalism in Nigeria was the political culture of the country. Evidently, Nigeria’s political culture was federalism friendly and that gave rise to easy adoption of federalism. As I have already explained, Nigeria is an amalgamation of three different regions with beliefs and customs. Federalism was the only solution to ensure peace and unity amongst the leaders and the citizens and that was why federalism was adopted into the Nigerian political system.
In the same way, the political culture of the United States is civic, republican and participatory. It represents a synthetic between two perspectiveneess; one is that politics of the United States should produce the good commonwealth and the other is that the principal task of politics is to create an open political market.

4.) Ethnic, Religious and Geographical Factor
No doubt, the Ethnic, Religious and Geographical nature of Nigeria also contributed to the reason why federalism was adopted. This is so because where federal principles apply, the various ethnic groups that cannot or don’t form majority to produce large part may have the opportunity of governing themselves within their federating unit controlled by them.
Common national, racial, religious, cultural linguistic or social ties have often contributed to the unification of political unit. In some areas where major communal or other social antagonism cuts across territorial boundaries, ranging through all the federating units, communities or classes have been driven to seek to protect or strengthen their position by inter-territorial union.
The fear of ethnic groups overlapping regional boundaries and the loyalties of castes cutting of some extent across provincial political boundaries also encourage some groups to support wider federal unions. There is no doubt that geographical factored are one of the influential reasons for federalism in Nigeria. The effectiveness of linking communications has been a vital factor in geographical unit.

5.). Minority Marginalization
Another cogent reason for federalism in Nigeria is the fear of marginalization. In other not to control only some parts of the big country, Nigeria, the colonial masters thought it wise to divide the country into different component units that will be represented in the government. This helped to solve the problem of marginalization in the leadership.
The fear of marginalization by the minority in a unitary system of government has, to a great extent, influenced the majority state support for federating states. In a Unitary system, the minority states cannot govern the entire region which is controlled by majority. Thus, federalism seemed to be the only option left for Nigeria because it allows for popular participation in government. Here, both the majority and minority are represented in the government.

6.) Resource control:
The availability of resources in a particular region and the need for that area to control the resources has also been seen as a reason for a federal system in Nigeria. This has nexus with the particular sharing formula adopted. In a unitary constitution which opposes federal principles, everything belongs to the central government; the federating unit does not exist, let alone agitating for resource control. However, that is not so in a federal government system.

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(NO 9)
(9a)
E government is the use of or application of information technologies (such as Internet and intranet systems) to government activities and processes in order to facilitate the flow of information from government to its citizens, from citizens to government and within government.

(9b)
(i)Inclusive Governance; E-governance helps in building trust between governments and citizens, an essential factor in good governance by using internet-based strategies to involve citizens in the policy process, illustrating government transparency and accountability.

(ii)Easy and Quick Implementation; With e-government, paperwork has been made so simple and intuitive. This facilitates sharing of information and ideas between all government agencies and department to build one mega data base. Getting the government decisions and policies across to the citizens is easy as well.

(iii)High Operational Efficiency; What matters a lot to citizens is the efficiency of the services being provided. The effectiveness of government is measured by the quality of its interactions with citizens. The processing of paperwork in a traditional government system is a difficult task which consumes a lot of resources.

(iv)High Level of Trust on Government; For any government to survive or maintain or keep control of power, such government must win the trust of the majority of the citizens. E-government can always afford that for any government that embraces it. It improves services through better understanding of citizens’ requirements, thus aiming for seamless online services.

(v)Reduces Costs of Running a Government; E-government is very cost effective. Let’s take for example that government wants to seek a public opinion on an issue, with e-government system it can take a survey and the opinion very fast at extremely low cost. That also applies when government would want to capture some data.



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(4)
[Pick Any FIVE] (i) Press freedom: The use of mass media should be maintained.
(ii) Bureau of information: This should be established to receive, compile and disseminate information.
(iii) Freedom of speech and association: By encouraging and allowing freedom of speech and association.
(iv) Activities of pressure groups: By encouraging the activities of pressure groups and other voluntary organisations.
(v) Opinion Poll: Encouraging the use of opinion polls on issues of general importance.
(vi) Existence of political parties: Will help to mould the opinion of the people.
(vii) Responsible and responsive: For eg. Social institutions such as families and religious centres should be able to demonstrate these.

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(1)
[Pick Any FIVE] (i) Freedom of the press: The radio, newspaper and television should be free to write and Express issues without any hindrance.

(ii) Political parties: Where democracy is operational, there are more than one political party with different individuals competing for power.

(iii) Political liberty: it is an indispensable factor, the equal rights of all normal adults to vote and to stand as candidates for election, periodic elections and equal eligibility for political offices etc.

(iv) Value of individual personality: In democracy, the belief in the value of individual personality is restored. It implies the need to respect the other man,to listen to his arguments and to take account his point of view

(v) Free association and group: People should be able yo choose their own candidates or support political parties without being intimidated. Citizens can form parties and canvass for support for their programmes.

(vi) Provision of opportunities: Democracy provides opportunities for an individual to develop his or her personality. It provides access to knowledge and free education, securing against unemployment, fair working conditions, leisure etc.

(vii) Supremacy of the constitution/Rule of law: The constitution should be supreme and above every other consideration in any political system. There should be the application of the rule of law and no one should be above the law

(viii) Independence of the judiciary/fundamental human right: The judiciary should be free and independent of other branches of government eg executive and the legislature. The rights of individual should be promoted and guaranteed.

 

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